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03/06/23Lithium Part III - Together in Electric Dreams

In this Part III of our series on Lithium, we seek to better understand two major themes that seem unrelated in appearance but should be more and more: (i) Industrial and vertical integration strategies within the value chain. (ii) ESG considerations and innovative solutions. Ecosystems around lithium should evolve significantly and allow the emergence of new innovative players. Lithium is a very good example of the disruption of traditional industries by new entrants and an inevitable process of vertical integration. There is every reason to believe that Big Lithium will be made up of players we barely heard of twenty years ago: Tesla, CATL, BYD, Albemarle, SQM and others in this value chain.

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02/24/23The Big Lithium is Underway - Ecosystems & Value Chain (slide deck)

Lithium-ion technologies are accepted as the most suitable due to their historically low costs and high energy densities, as well as their growth in production allowing for scale effects. Lithium is a very good example of the disruption of traditional industries by new entrants and an inevitable process of vertical integration. The Big Lithium is Underway is intended to give you a synthetic view of all the topics around the lithium value chain that we have addressed in the three parts of this series: 1. Lithium Part I - What Difference Does It Make? focuses on the reasons behind the dominance of lithium-ion batteries as well as the battery cost hurdles to reach the mass market. 2. Lithium Part II – Just Can't Get Enough looks at the element lithium, its different characteristics and the different forms that deposits can take. We also try to understand the mismatches that can occur in lithium supply and demand and the implications this may have on the transition from internal combustion vehicles to electric vehicles. 3. Lithium Part III – Together in Electric Dreams (released soon) Seeks to better understand two major themes that seem unrelated in appearance, but which should be more and more: (i) Industrial and vertical integration strategies within the value chain and (ii) ESG considerations and innovative solutions. There is every reason to believe that Big Lithium will be made up of players we barely heard of twenty years ago.

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01/13/23Clean Oceans Part III - Tide is High

In this Part III of Clean Oceans, we continue our exploration of the oceans. After studying tidal energy, we will focus on understanding how other types of energy available through the oceans work. In a first section, we will describe the different types of MRE, as well as their operation (excluding tidal energy which was the subject of the previous note Tide is High Part II). Then, in a second section, we will try to evaluate the potential of all these MRE in terms of TWh/year. Finally, in the third section, we will look at the paradox between the phenomenal potential of MREs and their very low current exploitation. We will try to analyze this paradox and understand the reasons.

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12/02/22Lithium Part II - Just Can't Get Enough

In this new publication, we aim to go into the details of two major topics that we believe are essential to analyse in order to understand the implications of lithium on the further down part of the value chain. In the first section, we look at the element lithium, its different characteristics and the different forms that deposits can take. Indeed, the latter has many consequences on the entire value chain. In the second section, we will try to understand the mismatches that can occur in lithium supply and demand and the implications this may have on the transition from internal combustion vehicles to electric vehicles. We also discuss through unconventional deposits and the development of new extraction technologies to transform resources into reserves. Battery chemistry where lithium is replaced by sodium or potassium might be alternatives to reduce electrification dependence to lithium.

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09/29/22Lithium Part I - What Difference Does It Make?

Lithium-ion technologies are accepted as the most suitable due to their historically low costs and high energy densities, as well as their growth in production allowing for scale effects. Many efforts have contributed to the cost reduction that underlies the observed price decline, but the contributions of these efforts and their relative importance remain unclear. Lithium-ion battery prices, which were above $1100/kWh in 2010, fell 89% in real terms to $132/kWh in 2021 and could be around $100/kWh in 2023. Pack prices below $100/kWh are critical because it is around this level that automakers should be able to produce and sell mass market EVs at the same price as internal combustion vehicles. In any case, lithium is valuable because it is both the lightest metal and the least dense solid element offering a high power-to-weight ratio, critical when it comes to transport.

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07/05/22Clean Oceans Part II - The Tide is High

Tidal power is a form of hydroelectricity that converts tidal energy into electrical energy. The power available for tidal power generation in a given area may be greater than that of a wind turbine due to the higher density of water. The first advantage of tidal turbines, and of tidal energy in general, is its predictability. Moreover, that they are not visible (in the case of tidal turbines standing on the seabed), because they are completely submerged under water. The tidal turbine sector faces four key challenges : energy cost, availability, environmental impact, energy transport. The technology required for tidal power is well developed, and the main barrier to increased use of the tides is construction costs. The demand for electricity on a power grid varies with the time of day and the electricity supply from a tidal power station will never match the demand from a system. But this source of energy will be able to replace, in part, the electricity which would otherwise be produced by fossil fuel power stations. The global potential for tidal energy is enormous (tidal turbines and dams). The World Energy Council estimates that up to 1,000 GW of ocean power could be installed by 2050, equivalent to half the world's current coal capacity.

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06/24/22Hydrogen - New Born Part I

This Part I aims to be generalist without going into the details of more specific issues that we will try to address in subsequent publications. Focusing only on the specific link related to the subject would lead us to potentially evade decisive issues that may influence or arise from the central subject. In future publications, it seems interesting to us to look more deeply into the following areas, even if by pulling the thread new themes will certainly emerge: Production of electrolysers, players, technological and competitive environment ; Hydrogen producers by energy source, infrastructure needs in production, storage and transport of green energy for the production of hydrogen ; Hydrogen demand, more detailed trends, industrial players and limits ; The future of fossil players faced with the challenges of hydrogen.

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05/18/22Climate Change How Soon is Now - Heavy Industries & Mitigation Technologies

The question of “best effort” versus “best in class” arises for heavy industries. They are ranked among the worst ESG performers in the world, and the materials they produce are closely linked to their carbon footprint. Is there a fatality for players in cement, aggregates, mortars and other heavy materials related to construction and infrastructure? Should the steel industry, the other big dirty sector in the world, suffer the same fate? To ensure the energy transition, we need these heavy materials industries just as we need the mining industry, so the answer is in the question. The rapid emergence of solutions to extract excess CO2 from the atmosphere raises essential questions about measures to advance these technologies. CCUS projects are on track to extract more than 550 million tonnes of CO2 from the atmosphere, globally, each year by 2030.

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04/29/22Clean Oceans - Part I

This editorial is the first in a long series dedicated to the preservation of the Oceans This first publication has no other ambition than to draw up a factual observation of the dramatic damage that the oceans have suffered for years under the effect of human activity, from the use of fossil fuels to overfishing. At the end of this long list of the damage that man does to his oceans, we will focus on defining the measures that are already taken, and that remain to be taken, to save our oceans, We will also try, in terms of ecological transition, to determine to what extent the ingenuity of man could make it possible to generate clean energy through the phenomenal and eternal energy that the oceans provide. We are talking about marine energy. A wide variety of technologies can be used. All these themes will be part of a series of Editos to come in the coming weeks.

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04/20/22Climate Change - How Soon is Now Part III

A limited number of coal-fired power plants are still under construction in advanced economies. In Asia, their number is growing rapidly and represents 90% of new coal-fired electricity generation capacity in the world for the past 20 years. The solutions for less CO2 emissions are multiple. The most radical will tip the scales as much as possible towards degrowth without taking into consideration the economic and social effects induced by it. In this publication, we focus on some of the aspects, not as unique solutions, but rather as illustrations in the universe of possibilities. Industrial production is essential to a modern economy. However, a modern production strategy must be driven by industry and for industry. Energy efficiency is often forgotten in the discourse, or even treated as a limited and declining (Ricardian) resource.

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03/22/22Living in The Plastic Age Part III

In this Part III of Living in The Plastic Age, we stay in the world of polymers, but on a smaller scale in unit size, but not necessarily volume and especially in current and future damage, that of plastic microparticles. We offer you an approach very centred on the textile sector, even if it is not the only one responsible for this form of invisible marine pollution. These microplastics come significantly from textiles and clothing, but also from plastic packaging that eventually erodes into smaller pieces and inevitably into the equivalent of grains of sand over time.

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03/14/22Maritime Transport & Inflation - Seven Seas Part II

Historical beliefs are that geopolitical disturbances are favourable to maritime transport demand. The pattern of trade is disrupted and becomes less efficient. Freight has to travel longer distances. Rates are rising. Russia's invasion of Ukraine could demonstrate the opposite. The conflict in Ukraine, beyond the disastrous human considerations, could have a very significant impact on global growth. We can start to read estimates of an impact of around 1% on global economic growth, but this will of course depend on the different scenarios linked to this conflict and which are difficult to predict at this stage.

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Providing insights, Qalis connects investors with experts of many sectors and countries to help them improve information understanding and develop specific knowledge. Qalis is a Paris-based independent company founded in 2011.

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